Sandip Das, Assistant Professor, Department of Commerce, Gobordanga Hindu College
Abstract –The National Education Policy of India 2020 (NEP 2020) was adopted by the Union Cabinet of India on July 29, 2020, and it narrates the aim of the country’s future educational system. It takes the place of the earlier National Policy on Education from 1986. The aim of the strategy is to generate a system of education tenacious in Indian values that immediately transforms India by offering high-quality education to everyone, making India a worldwide proficiency imperium.
Keywords – NEP, GOI, NPE, GER, Education, Educational Activity. The Indian government created the National Policy on Education (NPE) to encourage education among its citizens. Realizing one’s full potential, creating a fair society, and advancing global progress depending on education.
The secret to India’s continuous rise and leadership on the international stage in terms of economic growth, social fairness and equality, scientific advancement, national integration, and cultural preservation is to ensure that everyone has access to high-quality education. The policy encompasses both rural and urban India’s primary and secondary education through colleges. Prime Minister Indira Gandhi issued the country’s first NPE in 1968, Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi issued the second in 1986, and Prime Minister Narendra Modi issued the third NEP in 2020. The aim for India’s future educational system is described in the National Education Policy 2020 (NEP 2020), which was adopted by the Indian Union Cabinet on July 29, 2020. The old National Policy on Education, 1986, has been replaced with the new policy. In both rural and urban India, the policy provides a complete framework for education from early childhood through higher education. It also covers vocational training. By 2021, the strategy wants to completely overhaul India’s educational system.
The implementation of the language policy in NEP is up to the states, organizations, and schools; it is intended to be a broad guideline and advisory in nature.Indian Educational Policies, it’s historical Evolution-Education policy is an important focus for governments all around the world. There is demand on a global scale to pay more attention to the results of educational programs and their effects on social and economic growth. The GOI experienced various difficulties, including illiteracy, after gaining independence in 1947. The GOI developed and sponsored a variety of projects, policies, and rules to address the issues of illiteracy. Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, India’s first education minister, envisioned a consistent educational system through strict central government regulation of the educational system and policies. To develop the ideas to modernize the university system, the Union Government established the University Education Commission (1948–1949), the Secondary Education Commission (1952–1953), the Kothari Commission (1964–1966), and the University Grants Commission (November 1956) to develop the recommendations for modernizing India’s educational systems.
The Science Policy Resolution was approved by Jawaharlal Nehru, India’s first prime minister, with the intention of advancing science education. The Indian Institute of Technology (IITs) and other top educational institutes have received funding from the Nehru administration in order to advance engineering and science. In 1961, the Union Government established the National Council for Educational Research and Training (NCERT) as a stand-alone organization. This system’s goal is to provide guidance to governments on the creation and execution of educational policy.1968’s First National Education Policy -The first NEP was established in 1968 by the administration of then-Prime Minister Indira Gandhi based on the findings and recommendations of the Kothari Commission (1964–1966). Equal educational possibilities (for both rural and urban sectors) were recommended as part of the policy’s “radical reform” to promote national integration and better cultural and economic growth. However, the choice to make Hindi the national tongue was met with opposition. To encourage the use of Hindi as a universal language throughout India, the policy encouraged its usage and study.The ancient Sanskrit language, which was regarded as an essential component of India’s culture and tradition, was urged to be taught as part of this particular program. This policy was also designed to support physical education and the culture of games and sports.
According to the NPE of 1968 (Gov. of India, 1968), education spending should increase to 6% of the national income.1986, Second National Education Policy -Former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi introduced a new National Policy to advance education at all economic levels in 1986. Regardless of caste (scheduled caste, scheduled tribes), gender (predominantly for females), or economic background, the accepted policy is noted for placing special emphasis on the elimination of inequalities and to provide the educational opportunity. In order to foster social integration, the program advocated for the expansion of grants, subsidies, allowances, adult education, and a number of other strategies. This NPE is renowned for the “child-centered approach,” particularly for primary education, and as a result, it launched the hugely successful educational reform known as “Operation Blackboard.” The goal was to build primary schools all around the nation. With the establishment of the Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) in 1985, the policy expanded the system of open and remote learning universities. This policy adheres to Mahatma Gandhi’s ideology of promoting development (both social and economic) at the grassroots level in rural India (Govt. of India, 1986). Second National Education Policy Amendments in 1992 and 2005The NEP was amended in 1992 by former prime minister P.V. Narasimha Rao. The introduction of the Common Entrance Examination (CEE) is a notable aspect of this educational program. Manmohan Singh, the former prime minister of India, unveiled an updated “Common Minimum Program” agenda.For all admissions to vocational and technical training programs in India, a common entrance exam was envisaged as part of the Program of Action (PoA) 1992, which was part of the NEP, 1986.2020 Third National Policy on Education-2019 saw the Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) release a Draft on NEP, 2019, which was followed by a number of suggestions and consultations made by the public and stakeholders. In order to improve critical thinking and fundamental learning, the Draft NEP discusses lowering curricular content. Promoting comprehensive experiential, dialogical, and analytical learning is the goal. For the first time, it also discusses a change in the curriculum. The biggest change is from a 10 + 2 + 3 system to a 5 + 3 + 3 + 4 system in the pedagogical structure. An effort is being made to maximize learning depending on children’s cognitive development. On July 29, 2020, the cabinet (senate) passed an NEP that aimed to make significant changes to the current Indian educational system.
The NEP 2020 scripts a big improvement in our educational system that is appropriate and liberal.ADVANTAGE OF NEW EDUCATION POLICY – The Foundation Stage – The Foundational Stage offers fundamental education that is adaptable, multilayered, play-based, activity-based, and discovery-based. For the purpose of stimulating children’s cognitive and emotional development, this stage is continually developed using time-tested Indian traditions and cultures. The Preparatory Stage – It consists of building on play-, discovery-, and activity-based learning is the preparatory stage. This level also gradually introduces formal classroom instruction using textbooks. The goal is to introduce the students to various topics and have them ready to dig further into ideas. Middle School Education stage – The three years of middle school instruction are devoted to teaching students more abstract ideas in each of the subjects—sciences, arithmetic, the arts, social sciences, and humanities. The approach to use in specialized subjects with subject teachers is experiential learning. Students are introduced to the semester system, and two class-level exams are held each year. Secondary education Stage – The four-year secondary school curriculum is made up of a variety of disciplines, including a liberal arts education. This stage will be based on the subject-oriented instructional methodology and curriculum with increased breadth, flexibility, critical thinking, and focus on life goals, The semester system is introduced to students, who will take 5 to 6 classes each semester. At the conclusion of the 10th and 12th grades, there will be board exams. Undergraduate Education Stage – All undergraduate degrees will be three or four years in length and offer a variety of departure alternatives, including a certificate after the first year, a diploma after the second year, or a bachelor’s degree after the third. The four-year undergraduate program with major, minor, and research projects is preferred. Post-Graduation Education Stage – The Master’s degree is available as a one-year degree for students with a four-year bachelor’s degree, a two-year degree for students with a three-year bachelor’s degree, and an integrated five-year degree with an emphasis on excellent research in the final year. To improve professional competence and prepare students for a research degree, the master’s degree will have a significant research component. Research Stage – The research stage entails conducting excellent research leading to a Ph.D. in any core topic, multidisciplinary subject, or interdisciplinary subject for a minimum of three to four years for full-time study and separately for part-time study. They should take an 8-credit course in teaching, education, or pedagogy that is linked to the Ph.D. subject they have chosen. The previous M. Phil program of one year has been discontinued. The NEP 2020 suggests lifelong learning and research to prevent people from losing the information, abilities, and experiences necessary to lead pleasant lives in society. Education and study are thought to increase maturity for life happiness at any stage of life. Notable aspects of NEP, 2020:-Ensuring universal access to all educational opportunities from early childhood education through grade 12; Ensuring access to high-quality early childhood care and education for all children between the ages of 3-6; A new curriculum and pedagogy (5+3+3+3+4).
There are no clear distinctions between the sciences and the arts, between academic and extracurricular pursuits, or between career paths and academic streams; Launching a national initiative on basic literacy and numeracy; Promoting multilingualism and Indian languages with a strong emphasis; the home language, mother tongue, local language, or regional language will be used as the primary medium of teaching until at least Grade 5, but ideally until Grade 8 and beyond. Modifications to assessment: up to two Board Exams per school year, one for the main test and one for development, if desired; The establishment of the PARAKH (Performance Assessment, Review, and Analysis of Knowledge for Holistic Development) National Assessment Center; Education, that is both equitable and inclusive, with a focus on socially and economically disadvantaged groups (SEDGs); Special education zones and a distinct gender inclusion fund for underprivileged areas and groups; Potent and open procedures for hiring instructors and performance evaluations are based on merit; Ensuring that all resources are accessible via school complexes and clusters; Establishing the SSSA (State School Standards Authority); Promotion of vocational education throughout the K–12 and tertiary systems of instruction. Increasing GER in higher education to 50%; (xvi) providing different entry/exit choices for a holistic and multidisciplinary education.NTA will conduct a common entrance exam for HEI admission; an academic bank of credit will be established; Multidisciplinary Education and Research Universities (MERUs) will be established. National Research Foundation (NRF) establishment.
The Higher Education Commission of India (HECI), which serves as a single, overarching umbrella organization for the promotion of higher education, including teacher education but excluding medical and legal education, has independent bodies for standard-setting (the General Education Council), funding (the Higher Education Grants Council), accreditation (the National Accreditation Council), and regulation (the National Higher Education Regulatory Council).To raise the Gross Enrolment Ratio (GER), open and distant learning should be expanded.
Professional education will be a crucial component of the internationalization of education in higher education. The goal of institutions in these and other sectors, including independent technical universities, law schools, medical schools, and agricultural colleges, is to become multidisciplinary institutions. The teacher training degree in education includes a 4-year comprehensive stage- and subject-specific. The commercialization of higher education will be fought and stopped by a number of methods with checks and balances. As a “not-for-profit” entity, all educational institutions will be held to the same standards of audit and disclosure. Together, the Center and the States will expand public investment in the education sector to, at the earliest, 6% of GDP. The Central Advisory Board of Education should be strengthened to ensure coordination and to put more of an emphasis on high-quality education overall.By 2030, the NEP, 2020 aims to raise the GER in preschool through secondary education to 100%, while it will rise from 26.3% in 2018 to 50% in higher education, including vocational education. The Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya National Mission on Teachers and Teaching (PMMMNMTT), a central sector scheme, was established in 2014 to address all concerns pertaining to teacher preparation, capacity building, and professional development of teachers. The country’s 95 centers, through which faculties and teachers were taught, were founded under the components. The Scheme has been evaluated by the Standing Finance Committee, which has recommended that it be continued through 2025–2026 with a total outlay of Rs. 493.68 crore. Centers are formed under the PMMMNMTT Scheme based on proposals received from educational institutions, their review by the Screening Committee, and project board approval. Dr. Subhas Sarkar, Minister of State for Education, provided the information in the Lok Sabha in a written statement 1. Drawbacks of NEP –The implementation may not have enough resources. Lack in digital infrastructure. Increase pressure and competition for students.
The use of Hindi or English may replace regional languages. Government control of higher education has drawn criticism, and there may not be enough academic independence. The exclusion of underprivileged groups and worries about school privatization.Lack of understanding regarding the policy’s implementation and likely stakeholder opposition.Possible harm to traditional industry workers’ employment prospects.Apprehensions about the potential implementation costs and their effects on government spending in other areas. The National Education Policy 2020 is a commendable and ambitious attempt to modernize, advance, and make equal India’s educational system. In order to successfully implement this policy, decision-making processes must be drastically simplified, and budgetary resources must be reprioritized in the months and years to come. The NEP calls for large-scale implementation of a magnitude never previously tried anywhere in the world, given that there are currently about 350 million Indians in the age groups attending school or attending college. The execution of this poses significant problems on both a quantitative and qualitative level. A big and ambitious move toward changing the Indian educational system is the New Education Policy of 2020. The policy has the potential to have a good effect on students, educators, and communities with its emphasis on bilingual education, technology integration, vocational education, teacher training, and improved access to education. However, its effectiveness will depend on how well it is put into practice and how it handles any problems that might arise as a result of the significant policy change.
In India’s educational history, the New Education Policy represents a new chapter, and it will be interesting to see how it develops and what effect it has on the next generations.
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