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All devices on the network can be connected to each other through the Internet of Things. The Internet of Things is slowly evolving into the next stage of the Internet world. At the same time, the need for people to use the Internet of Things is increasing day by day. This enables IT devises to work automatically without any human intervention by sending information, which we know as robotic devices. Automating objects makes them smarter. From smart cities to health centers, agricultural systems, logistics and small businesses, education, government, even smart daily life and smart environments are going to be made possible by IoT. Although technologies have evolved in recent years, there is a need for more observation and human awareness as improvements are made. Since IoT has evolved through a lot of technology and research, it is only natural that challenges arise. By Kevin Ashton, IoT was first proposed in 1999. IoT devices are used throughout our lives. And it is very important in various studies of computer science. In this way, it has taken a leading place in the world of research today. IoT was used during the Covid 19 epidemic for contact tracing.
Internet networks can keep the human world connected to information. The Internet can easily operate IoT related objects such as various degrees of processing, actuation capabilities, and sensing devices because these objects are connected to each other through the Internet and can communicate data. So from this, we can say that the main reason for the use of the Internet of Things (IoT) is that different objects, from different places, at different times, to do the same thing, or to do different things can be used very easily, single network or internet connection. The Internet of Things is slowly being considered the next stage in the evolution of the Internet. In the future, IoT will achieve countless goals by integrating many common devices through the Internet. The number of devices that could be part of IoT is now as low as 0.6%. But by 2022, about 60 billion devices will probably be connected to the Internet. As the days go by, IoT devices and with it the Internet, become an integral part of our lives. By using quantum and nanotechnology, we have been able to control storage, processing speed, and sense. Smartphone, automobiles, systems, cameras, toys, cars, and home appliances can all communicate with each other through the Internet and the Internet of Things, and we can call it the Smart City.
IoT plays an important role in improving the smartness of cities and improving general infrastructure. IoT needs some sophisticated applications to make any city a smart city parts of the city, taking appropriate action before natural disasters, as well as monitoring the physical condition of bridges and buildings.
Different Install sound monitoring devices in places, such as hospital school courts etc. As well as monitoring the movement of pedestrians and vehicles. Artificial intelligence (AI) enabled IoT applications are being utilized in these smart cities. To keep the environment clean, IoT applications are used to install weather-adapted street lights and identify environmental waste. Large highways have been alerted by this IoT to provide alert messages and important information, and alerts can also be made easily depending on the weather conditions or the dangers such as traffic jams and accidents. Some of its advanced applications are Aware Home and Smart Santander functionality. Some big cities have plans on how to apply the Internet of Things to most systems, from their parking meters, streetlights, sewerage gates, all set to connect to the Internet. .This kind of applications will make significant progress in saving both money and energy.
All smart roads use IoT sensors and IoT technologies that make driving easy and safe. It provides drivers with real-time information about the weather and road conditions. Warns drivers about finding parking spaces and incoming traffic. This helps to prevent accidents. These technologies are especially helpful on mountain roads. Landslides are a common occurrence in the mountains. Roads that have car charging capabilities can also charge their electric vehicles with the help of electromagnetic processes. Starting from the direction of the road, how far is the petrol pump, where is the road broken, where is the road closed, what will be the traffic signal next all type of information are easily available.
Cities have been illuminated with the help of smart lights in a scientific way at a low cost in different places based on the demand for light. These smart lights run on solar energy (solar panels) and thus collect energy during the day and illuminate the sun at night. Smart street lights are turned on whenever a vehicle or person passes through its vicinity. By understanding the different places, they increase and decrease the light and stop the propagation of light. Home School-College Courts Roads Government Offices Hospital Nursing Homes Solar-powered smart light system is used by these solar panels everywhere so that electricity money and the environment can be saved.
Smart Parking Management:
The smart parking management system is enabled by in-ground vehicle detection sensors. These systems allow drivers to park their cars immediately by locating an empty parking spot in the city. As a result, the management of car parking has become very easy. This system allows the driver of any vehicle to send and book an acknowledgement to park their car in the nearest location, where there is a parking spot, to see if there is any vacancy in that parking spot. GPS system location trackers need to be in the car and in the parking spot. This greatly reduces traffic jams. Maintains vehicle security. And time-to-time vehicle acknowledgement is available on mobile phones.
Smart Traffic Signals:
A part of the CV2X (Cellular Vehicle for All) network is the Smart Traffic Light Signals in IoT. Using this network a traffic light is always in contact with road vehicles. Vehicles send real-time information to traffic signals, which are based on the traffic conditions of the vehicles. This enables you to switch lights on traffic signals. This helps reduce traffic congestion at road crossings and enables the flow of traffic in a busy city.
Water Level Monitoring System:
It can using water level monitoring system, smart buildings maintain the required amount of water. This wireless tank level monitoring system will alert the building members whenever the water level falls below a certain level. Water quality can also be accurately estimated by the presence of TDS, pH, and other sensors attached here. Gives members of the building enough time to call the municipality or water tanker supplier before running out of water in a building.
Security and safety measures:
Devices such as IP surveillance cameras and wireless alarms are attached to this system. CC cameras prevent unknown people from entering the building and assist in remote observation of the building. This reduces the risk of theft and helps identify people in unauthorized areas of the building.
Smart Waste Management:
About 4.6 kg of solid waste is generated per capita in any city The Internet of Things has come up with groundbreaking smart waste management solutions for collecting and managing such a huge amount of waste. This will reduce the cost of municipal waste collection, reduce the overflow of waste in any dustbin, and be able to predict the amount of waste generated anywhere. Smart lightning management will be able to prevent the release of harmful diseases and gases.
IoT Smart Waste Management whenever a dustbin is full so that the dustbin is emptied as soon as possible. Dustbins are embedded with sensors that constantly alert the municipality about their level and location. This makes it easy to keep the environment beautiful and dust free. The right decision can be made for smart waste management systems to keep the environment clean at very low cost and in a short period of time. All of these measures are very helpful in making life more digital in smart cities.
- Fleet Management and Vehicle Tracking
Fleet management solutions help keeps track of vehicles. GPS Fleet Management Solutions can be used by a city’s emergency authority for public safety. This system can be used to track stolen vehicles, ambulances and fire trucks can use it to get to the fire truck as quickly as possible.
Fleet management solutions in smart cities increase the use of couriers and smart delivery A fleet manager can keep his trucks and ships ’trucks and make sure, that his ship’s products are safe and secure at every stage. A delivery person can easily know the delivery location and the shortest distance to get there by connecting to the smart city network.
IoT Security and Privacy:
There are risks with the unprecedented growth in the deployment of smart IoT technology. As the rate of data protection and privacy has increased rapidly. Security has deteriorated on IoT devices to exclude some limited resources and sophisticated cryptographic techniques. As a result, all of these places are at risk of various types of Internet attacks, such as privacy of service leaks, personal data attacks, and data theft, Virus attack. Recently, there have been numerous research proposals on IoT security and privacy. Nevertheless, there is still a security gap. For example, most of the proposed methods target one or two security requirements, such as privacy and authentication. An efficient and reliable IoT needs to share the necessary services for data sharing All organizations need to keep in mind that just as IoT devices are advancing people towards the well-being of society, they should not ignore its darker aspects.
The easiest and most natural way of communicating with human society is through the medium of sound. Research over the past few years has made it possible for humans to communicate with machines using natural language, thus giving birth to the AI conversational machine-human environment. It connects human conversations to machines using text-based or voice-based applications.
These conversational agents can be imagined as a natural interface for IoT devices. The integration of IoT and AI has successfully developed a conversational approach. Many applications are already being used in people’s daily lives, such as smart offices, smart homes and smart vehicles. Google Home is the first to transform our home into a smart IoT home. Which is very flexible to work Amazon’s Echo is another sophisticated device that offers more and more advanced features than Google Home. Listening to the surroundings of the house for Amazon echo sounds or alarms can guard the house in the absence of the owner. It only helps to make purchases from Amazon through voice instructions and informs the owner when the parcel arrives. Each user can know their account details using voice activation. Along with the advantages, this system is plagued with many limitations can be considered as research challenges Many times the user’s personal information is leaked Disclosure of this user’s confidential information may pose a risk to one’s privacy, For this reason, technology is needed where multiple users can provide their data with security and confidence IoT conversations such as “Turn on the TV” or “What is room temperature?” works on such simple instructions. In this way, a medium has been created between man and machine by easily accepting complex and simple conversations. This requires extensive research.
In many countries, most healthcare services are inefficient, slow and flawed. It can be easily changed and improved depending on the IoT smart device This technology can facilitate various activities in a very short time This IoT Smart Platform can further improve healthcare by keeping records of multiple people and providing medicines. The IoT smart application has many advantages over patient, staff and object tracking, identification and data processing. This makes it easier to maintain each patient’s record and research the next step with the help of sensor devices, it becomes very quick and easy to examine patients and reach health-conscious conclusions.
Smart Agriculture and Water Management:
IoT tests soil moisture and strengthens and improves the agricultural sector by monitoring stem diameter. This can control the number of vitamins found in agricultural products Microclimate conditions can be controlled to produce and preserve vegetables and fruits and to judge their quality. Weather studies, snow levels, drought measurements, wind changes, and rain or snow forecasts are possible. In addition to fungi, other bacterial contaminants can be prevented Temperature and humidity levels can be controlled In the case of cattle. IoT can detect animals in the open, detecting harmful gases from farm excrement. This can contribute to the health and survival and the growth of children. By implementing IoT in agriculture, a lot of waste and looting can be avoided through agricultural monitoring techniques and management. It can control the supply of electricity and water very well.
IoT plays an essential role in human life, from humans to animals, and plants, everyone is affected by an unhealthy environment in one way or another. Much effort has been and is being made to reduce pollution and waste of natural resources, as well as to create a healthier environment. Ways of a smart environment are needed to help monitor and manage environmental waste. It can provide the right amount of data As a result. The government takes the initiative to do proper monitoring and beneficial work. Such systems are being used to protect the environment. This leads to the dream of creating a beautiful life and a green world. IoT technology allows for monitoring and management of air quality by collecting data from remote sensors. Provides round-the-clock geographic coverage to handle traffic jams in major cities along the way. IoT technology can measure levels of water pollution. In weather forecasting, IoT can provide an accurate and high resolution through weather monitoring through data exchange and data planning. Through this technology, it can collect barometric pressure, humidity, temperature, light, speed and other information from moving vehicles and transmit the information to weather stations.
Advantage of IOT:
It provides various benefits in our daily life. Some of the benefits are:
- Minimize human performance: The use of IoT devices has greatly reduced human labour. As a result, people’s thinking has improved and their efficiency has changed.
It has been possible to save time: it saves us a lot of time. One of the primary benefits of using the IoT platform is.
- Data Collection: Even if we are far away from our actual location, we will continue to get the data we need from time to time. This is possible for real-time updates. This allows these devices to access data from anywhere at any time on any device.
- Improving security: If we have a mobile phone and an internet connection, it is possible to communicate with the rest of the world at home. As a result, these methods focus on greater security and privatization
- Reduce the use: With very few tools in this management, everything can be limited. Data can be exchanged with the rest of the world through a mobile phone and an internet system. That is why the use of additional electronic equipment is slowly declining As a result, waste of electricity is reduced
- Traffic Systems: Proper tracking systems are maintained using IoT technology.
- Useful in the healthcare industry: Patient care, doctor’s advice, and additional equipment meet the need for this IoT smart healthcare system.
The disadvantages of IoT are:
Just as the Internet of Things has its advantages, its disadvantages cannot be forgotten. Here are some of the disadvantages of IoT:
- Security issues: IoT systems communicate over a network. Thus, despite having a security system, they are not fully reliable and can result in a variety of network attacks.
- Loss Privacy: Our own personal data can be stolen by any type of network attack.
- Unemployment Causes: Unskilled workers or skilled people are also at high risk of losing their jobs as a result, resulting in high unemployment rates day by day. Today, people are getting intelligent surveillance cameras, robots, intelligent ironing systems, intelligent washing machines and other facilities at very low cost. As a result, people no longer need to do these tasks manually
- Increasing system complexity: The complexity of any system for designing, developing, and maintaining advanced technology in IoT systems is increasing day by day.
- Full System Crash: If for any reason the whole system is lost then all the data will be lost at once.
- Internet: Since IoT is an entire system online and dependent on the Internet, this system is completely reliant on the Internet to run all devices simultaneously around the world.
- Mental and physical effects: As the days go by, people are becoming increasingly dependent on the internet and smart devices, resulting in mental and physical disabilities. This is the way to do it today by clicking a button on a smart device instead of using physical force.
IoT sensors and advanced smart devices serve as the basis for building smart cities. This allows the public to experience living in a digital and smart environment. Cities are gaining the ability to improve their day-to-day operations, and city infrastructure is becoming more advanced and modern.
All of these IT centres and smart devices have made cities safer, faster, brighter and smarter. As the acceptance of IoT in various fields has increased, these smart cities are going to be the next big thing.
The Internet of Things (IoT) has been a very important place for research and development for more than two decades. However, there has been a lot of exciting activity in other areas, including the government sector, self-development and research, thanks to the contribution of this IoT device. In this research paper, we have identified the uses and disadvantages of IoT in various fields and hope to stimulate further research in this vibrant area.
- https://thesai.org/Downloads/Volume10No6/Paper_11 Internet_of_Things_IOT_Research_Challenges.pdf
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